Giáo án Chuyên đề tiếng Anh 4

TO RISE - tõ d©ng lªn (®éng tõ nµy kh«ng cÇn t©n ng÷)

Eg. The sun rises early in the summer./ When the bell rings, the students rise from their seats.

When oil and water mix, oil rises to the top./ Jim rose early so that he could play golf.

It must be late; the moon has risen./ Prices have risen more than ten percent in a very short time.

TO RAISE (sb, st) - N©ng ai, c¸i g× lªn - §éng tõ ®ßi hái 1 t©n ng÷.

Eg. The students raise their hands in class./ The weighlifter raises the barbell over it’s head.

The crane raised the car out of the lake./ After studying very hard, John raised his grades greatly.

Mr. Daniels has raised his tenants’ rent another fifteen dollars.

The OPEC have raised the price of oil.

TO LIE: ë t¹i , n»m. - to lie in: ë t¹i n¬i nµo./ - to lie down: n»m xuèng/ - to lie on: n»m trªn.

§éng tõ nµy rÊt dÔ nhÇm lÉn víi to lie (nãi dèi) ph¶i ph©n biÖt nã víi to lie trong mÉu c©u: to lie to sb.

Eg. The university lies in the Western section of town./ If they are tired, they should lie down for a nap.

Maria Elena lay on the beach for three hours yesterday sunbathing.

( trong c©u nµy hµnh ®éng sunbath x¶y ra song song víi viÖc n»m trªn b•i biÓn nªn dïng sunbathing - nh­ phÇn lý thuyÕt ë trªn ®• tr×nh bµy)

The old dog just lay on the grass watching the children at play.

( 2 hµnh ®éng n»m vµ xem x¶y ra ®ång thêi nªn dïng watching.)

Don’t disturb Mary; she has lain down for a rest.

That old rug had lain in the corner for many years before it was put in the garage.

TO LAY (st, sb): ®Æt, ®Ó ai ®ã, c¸i g× lªn trªn bÒ mÆt

 

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rªn.	- to lay in: ®Æt vµo.	- to lay down: ®Æt xuèng.
L­u ý: Nguyªn thÓ vµ hiÖn t¹i cña ®éng tõ nµy rÊt dÔ nhÇm lÉn víi thêi qu¸ khø cña ®éng tõ to lie, cÇn ph©n biÖt chóng theo ng÷ c¶nh.
Eg. Don’t lay your clothes on the bed./ The boy lays his books on the table every day.
The enemy soldiers laid down their weapons and surrendered.
= The enemy soldiers laid down their weapons surrendering.
The children laid their toys on the floor when they had finished using them.
The students had laid their composition on the teacher’s desk before the bell rang.
The nurse laid the baby in crib.
To sit: ngåi - to sit in: ngåi trong, ngåi ë./ - to sit on: ngåi trªn./ - to sit down: ngåi xuèng.
Eg. 	We are going to sit in the fifth row at the opera./ Bullfight fans sit in the shade because it is cool.
Because the weather was nice, we sat on the patio./ After swimming, Bob sat on the beach to dry off.
Nobody has sat through as many boring lectures as Peter has.
They have sat in the same position for 2 hours.
L­u ý: Kh«ng ®­îc nhÇm lÉn ®éng tõ nµy víi to seat ( cã søc chøa, cã chç ngåi)
Eg. This studium can seat 100.000 people.
To set: ®Æt ®Ó ( t­¬ng ®­¬ng víi to put). §éng tõ nµy rÊt dÔ lÉn ph¸t ©m vãi simple past cña to sit ( sat).
Eg. 	The little girl helps her father (to) set the table every night.
The carpenters set their tools in the box at noon and go to lunch.
The botanist set her plants in the sun so that they would grow.
After carrying her son from the car, the mother set him in his crib.
Don’t set the chocolate near the oven or it will melt.
No sooner had they set the roast in the oven, than the electricity went out.
** Mét sè thµnh ng÷ dïng víi c¸c ®éng tõ nµy.
- to lay off (workers, employees) - D·n thî, cho nghØ bít, cho t¹m nghØ.
- to set (broken bone) in: bã x­¬ng gÉy vµo trong ...
- to set one’s arlam for + time: ®Ó ®ång hå b¸o thøc vµo lóc. 
Eg. I set my alarm for 6 am everyday.
- to set fire to (st): lµm ch¸y. Eg. While playing with matches, the children set fired to the sofa.
- to raise ( plants, animals) for a living: Trång c©y, nu«i gia sóc ®Ó kiÕm sèng.
Eg. 	That farmer raises chickens for a living.
*** Mét sè ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt kh¸c.
- agree to do st ( §ång ý lµm g×) - agree to sb’s doing st (§ång ý víi viÖc lµm g× cña ai).
Eg. He agrees to my leaving early tomorrow morning.
- mean to do st: cã ý ®Þnh lµm g×. Eg. I mean to get to the top of the mount before sunrise.
- It means doing st: bao gåm c¶ viÖc lµm g×.
Eg. He is determined to get ticket for Saturday’s game if it means standing in the line all night.
- propose to do st: cã ý ®Þnh lµm g×. Eg. I propose to start tomorrow.
- propose doing st: §Ò nghÞ lµm g×. Eg: I proposed waiting until the police came.
- go on doing st: TiÕp tôc lµm viÖc g× ( ®ang bÞ bá dë) Eg. He goes on talking about his accident.
- go on to do st: TiÕp tôc lµm g× (vÉn cïng mét chñ ®Ò nh­ng chuyÓn sang mét khÝa c¹nh kh¸c).
Eg. 	He goes on to tell about his accident on the trip.
He shows the position of the Island on the map and goes on to talk about it’s climate.
- try to do st: cè g¾ng lµm g×. Eg. He tries to improve his English.	- try doing st: thö lµm g×.
Eg. They try putting wise netting all around the garden to stop entering of the livestock.
Either infinitives or gerunds:
1.1. stop:	a. stop + to infinitives (= stop this work to start the other work)
e.g. He stops to smoke. (He stops his work and starts smoking)
stop + gerunds (= to give up a habit ) e.g. He stops smoking (He no longer smokes)
1.2. try: a. try + to infinitives (= manage successfully to do)
e.g. He tried to lift the case. (He managed to lift the case and succeeded)
 try + gerunds (= to experience)
e.g. He tried lifting the case. (He wanted to know whether he could lift it)
1.3. remember:
remember + to infinitives (= to make oneself aware of a task)
e.g. He remembered to lock the door. (He had to lock the door)
remember + gerunds (= to assure oneself a fulfilled task)
e.g. He remembered locking the door. (He was sure that he had locked the door)
1.4. forget:
forget + to infinitives (= to miss a task) e.g. Sam forgot to buy food. (Sam didn’t buy food)
forget + gerunds (= the fulfilled task is forgotten)
e.g. Sam forgot buying food. (He bought food but he didn’t remember)
1.5. regret:
regret + to infinitives (not want to do this task)
e.g. Kim regretted to say the truth. (He didn’t want to say the truth but he had to)
regret + gerunds ( the task is done unexpectedly)
e.g. Kim regretted saying the truth.(He said and he regretted what he’d done)
Would:
conditional sentences:
e.g. If I were you, I would agree to come. He would have passed if he had known the rules well.
past habits: e.g. I would sing romantic songs when I was young. She would cry when she was too sad.
Used to: past habit not happen at present e.g. She used to walk to school.
Be (get) used to:
get used to (= be acquainted with) e.g. She has got used to walking to office. 
be used to (be familiar to) e.g. He was used to walking to office.
Would rather V1 than V2:
5.1. would rather (not) + V: e.g. She’d rather go to the meeting. We would rather not mention that case.
5.2. would rather + O (not) + p. V:
e.g. I’d rather him brought there some cakes. She would rather her husband not joined the army.
Prefer gerunds/Ns to gerunds/Ns:
6.1. prefer + gerunds = like + gerunds/ infinitives:e.g. She preferred walking to driving. She liked walking/ to walk.
6.2. would prefer + infinitives = would like + infinitives: e.g. She’d prefer to walk. She would like to walk.
Could/ may/ might: possibility/ maybe = perhaps
7.1. in conditional sentences: e.g. If it rains, we may cancel the trip. 
 We might go to the park if it were Sunday today.
7.2. uncertain speculation: e.g. It could/ may/ might rain tomorrow. It will possibly rain tomorrow.
7.3. perhaps/ maybe: e.g. Perhaps he won’t come. Maybe it will rain tomorrow.
Should:
8.1. command; request; obligation: e.g. You should study harder. / She should bring along an umbrella.
8.2. an expectation/ a wish: e.g. My letter should arrive next week.
Speculations/ deduction:
9.1. could/ may/ might + have + P.P: Past possibility e.g. It may have rained last night./ He might have gone.
9.2. should have + P.P: Past unfulfilled actions e.g. He should have done his homework. 
9.3. must have + P.P: Logical thought about past events e.g. (She passed the exam). She must have studied hard.
PRACTICE EXERCISE 8 – BÀI TẬP THỰC HÀNH 8
Choose one word or phrase marked A,B,C, or D that best complete the preceding sentence.
1. Columbus ______ America in 1492.
 	A. invented 	B. found 	C. discovered 	D. saw
2. A driver is a person who ______.
 	A. drives a car 	B. sells cars 	C. has a car 	D. makes cars
3. A singer is a person who ______.
 	A. composes music 	B. writes songs 	C. sings well 	D. drives well
4. Most of the ______ in my school are under 30 years old.
 	A. teachers 	B. workers 	C. artists 	D. farmers
5. Darwin, ______ was an English physiologist, was born in 1809 and died in 1882.
 	A. which 	B. that 	C. who 	D. where
6. Is there anything ______ I can do for you ?
 	A. where 	B. that 	C. who 	D. which
7. Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn ______ Twain’s best works.
 A. consider 	B. considered 	C. is considered 	D. are considered
8. He is working ______ a taxi-driver.
 	A. at 	B. as 	C. to 	D. in
9. A person who spends his/her whole life writing books is a ______.
 	A. writer 	B. teacher 	C. singer 	D. worker
10. G. Washington, ______ was the first president of the USA, was born in 1732 and died in 1799.
 	A. that 	B. who 	C. where 	D. which 
11. He dropped the vase and it broke ______ pieces.
 A. into 	B. down 	C. off 	D. in
12. When we travel in the streets, pay attention to traffic______. 
 A. sighs 	B. sights 	C. scenes 	 D. signs	
13. I am on a diet. I want to______ .
 A. over weighted 	B. lose weight 	C. gain weight 	D. get fatter
14. Faraday is the great ______of all time.
 A. scientific 	B. scientism 	C. scientist 	D. science
15. Mathematics______ an important part in our lives.
 A. lets 	B. plays 	C. applies 	D. lays
16. The driver stopped______ a coffee because he felt sleepy.
 A. have 	B. to have 	C. having 	D. had
17. Have you ever considered______ a pharmacist ?
 A .to become 	B. become 	C. became 	D. becoming
18. I would rather ______ at home than ______ out with him.
 A. stay/ go 	B. staying/going 	C. stayed/went 	D. to stay/to go
19. She suggested ______ a break for a while.
 A. took 	B. take 	C. taking 	D. taken
20. It is likely that everybody ______ at the age of 45.
 A. retires 	B. retired 	C. are retiring 	D. will retire
21. ______ the water clock, Newton also made a sundial.
	A. On	B. After	C. Besides	D. Before
22. M. Curie, _____ discovered radium, was a famous French physicist.
	A. whom	B. who	C. that	D. whose
23. Newton’s first physical experiment was _____ out in 1658.
	A. carried	B. made	C. taken	D. done
24. Jane Eyre, which ______ by Charlotte Bronte, is one of my favorite novels.
	A. wrote	B. written	C. was written	D. writes
25. the _____ of the steam engine made J. Watt famous throughout the world.
	A. invent	B. inventive	C. invention	D. inventor
26. M. Faraday didn’t have much ______ when he was young.
	A. school	B. scholar	C. schooled	D. schooling
27. A person who studies biology is a ______ . 
	A. scientist	B. physicist	C. biologist	D. mathematician
28. Einstein, _____ study of the theory of relativity made him famous, was a German physicist.
	A. whose	B. whom	C. who	D. by whom
29. Most of the experiments are carried out in ______. 
	A. schools	B. libraries	C. factories	D. laboratories
30. He was very good _____ mathematics when he was at school.
	A. on	B. of 	C. at	D. for
31. The steam engine was _____ by J. Watt.
	A. discovered	B. invented	C. cured	D. made
32. When he grew older, he became _____ in mathematics and physics.
	A. interested	B. interest	C.

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