Chuyên đề Giáo án tiếng Anh 7

1. The phrases of purpose: to V/ so as to V/ in order to V và dạng phủ định

S + verb + to/ so as/ in order (not) + to verb = To/ so as/ in order (not) + to verb, S + verb

Eg. To be better at English, he attended an evening class = He attended an evening class to be better at English.

 In order to be better at English, he attended an extra-class.

 He attended an extra-class so as to be better at English.

2. The clause of purpose with “so/ therefore” C¸c mÖnh ®Ò chØ môc ®Ých ®­îc ®i cïng víi liªn tõ so that. Sau so that lµ mét mÖnh ®Ò kÕt qu¶ gåm chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ. Thêi gian cña mÖnh ®Ò kÕt qu¶ ph¶i ë t­¬ng lai trong mèi quan hÖ víi thêi gian cña mÖnh ®Ò chØ môc ®Ých.

S + V, so S + V hay S + V, therefore S + V

Eg. It rained so heavily, so we cancelled the trip.

He learned hard, therefore he got better and better grades.

 

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spite / in spite of (mÆc dï)
§»ng sau 2 thµnh ng÷ nµy chØ ®­îc phÐp sö dông mét ng÷ danh tõ, kh«ng ®­îc sö dông mét c©u hoµn chØnh.
Despite/ In spite of + danh từ/ ngữ danh từ
Eg. 	Despite his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
In spite of his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
Jane will be admitted to the university despite her bad grades.
Jane will be admitted to the university in spite of her bad grades.
2. Clauses of concession with: although, even though, though
§»ng sau 3 thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i dïng mét c©u hoµn chØnh kh«ng ®­îc dïng mét ng÷ danh tõ.
Although/ Though/ Even though S + V, S + V = S + V although/ though/ even though S + V
Eg.	 Although he has a physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
Jane will be admitted to the university even though she has a bad grades.
L­u ý: NÕu though ®øng ë cuèi c©u, t¸ch ra khái c©u b»ng 1 dÊu phÈy. Khi nãi h¬i dõng l¹i mét chót, lóc ®ã nã t­¬ng ®­¬ng víi nghÜa “ tuy nhiªn” (however).
Eg. He promised to call me, but till now I haven’t received any call from him, though.
Mét sè thÝ dô bæ trî: In spite of the bad weather, we are going to have a picnic.
The child ate the cookie even though his mother had told him not to.
Although the weather was very bad, we had a picnic.
The committee voted to ratify the amendment despite the objections.
Though he had not finished the paper, he went to sleep.
She attended the class although she did not feel alert.
3. Clauses of concession with: despite/ in spite of the fact that
Despite/ In spite of + the fact that S + V
S + V =S + V despite/ in spite of + the fact that S + V
Mét sè thÝ dô bæ trî: In spite of the fact that the weather is bad, we are going to have a picnic.
The child ate the cookie despite the fact that his mother had told him not to.
D. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
1. Conditional sentences type 1 (real condition) – Câu điều kiện có thực: Kết quả có thể được thực hiện ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai khi điều kiện ứng nghiệm (xảy ra)
If + S + simple present + S + will/shall/ can/ may + [verb in simple form] 
Eg.	If I have the money, I will buy a new car.	If you try more, you will improve your English.
We will have plenty of time to finish the project before dinner if it is only ten o’clock now.
If + S + simple present tense + S + ... + simple present tense
MÉu c©u nµy cßn ®­îc dïng ®Ó diÔn t¶ mét thãi quen.
VÝ dô:	If the doctor has morning office hours, he visits his patients in the hospital in the afternoon (kh«ng cã ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu.)
John usually walks to school if he has enough time.
If + S+ simple present tense ... + command form* ...
* Nªn nhí r»ng mÖnh lÖnh thøc ë d¹ng ®¬n gi¶n cña ®éng tõ. ( simple form) MÉu c©u trªn cã nghÜa lµ nhê ai, ra lÖnh cho ai lµm g×.
Eg.	If you go to the Post Office, please mail this letter for me.	Please call me if you hear from Jane.
2. Conditional sentences type 2 (unreal present condition) – Câu điều kiện không có thực ở hiện tại: Kết quả không thể được thực hiện ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai bởi điều kiện chỉ là giả định (không thể xảy ra)
 If + S + simple past + S+ would/should/ could/ might + verb in simple form 
Eg.	If I had enough money now, I would buy this house ( but now I don’t have enough money.)
If I had the time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend. 
(but I don’t have the time.) ( I’m not going to the beach with you.)
He would tell you about it if he were here.	( he won’t tell you about it.) ( He is not here).
If he didn’t speak so quickly, you could understand him. 
(He speaks very quickly.) (You can’t understand him.)
L­u ý:	§éng tõ to be sau if ë mÉu c©u nµy ph¶i chia lµm were ë tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i.	I... they were.
Eg.	If I were you, I wouldn’t do such a thing.	(but I’m not you.)
3. Conditional sentences type 3 (unreal past condition) – Câu điều kiện không có thực ở quá khứ: Kết quả không thể được thực hiện trong quá khứ bởi điều kiện chỉ là giả định (không thể xảy ra)
If + S + pastperfect + S + would/should/ could / might + have + P2
Eg. If we hadn’t lost the way we could have been here in time. (but in fact we lost the way, so we were late.)
If we had known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
(We didn’t know that you were there.) ( we didn’t write you a letter.)
She would have sold the house if she had found the right buyer.
(She didn’t sell the house.) (She didn’t find the right buyer.)
If we hadn’t lost the way, we would have arrived sooner. (We lost our way.) (we didn’t arrive early.)
C©u ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng ph¶i lóc nµo còng tu©n theo ®óng c«ng thøc trªn, trong mét sè tr­êng hîp 1 vÕ cña c©u ®iÒu kiÖn ë qu¸ khø cßn mét vÕ l¹i ë hiÖn t¹i do thêi gian cña tõng mÖnh ®Ò quy ®Þnh.
Eg.	If she had caught the flight she would be here by now.
L­u ý:	Trong mét sè tr­êng hîp ë c©u ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®­îc ë thêi qu¸ khø, ng­êi ta bá if ®i vµ ®¶o had lªn ®Çu c©u nh­ng ý nghÜa vÉn gi÷ nguyªn.
Had + S + [verb in past participle ]...
Eg.	Had we known you were there, we would have written you a letter.
Had she found the right buyer, she would have sold the house.
Hadn’t we lost the way, we would have arrived sooner.
4. Special uses of “if” clauses – Một số cách sử dụng của mệnh đề “If”
 Th­êng nh÷ng ®éng tõ nµy kh«ng ®­îc dïng ®»ng sau if nh­ng nÕu ®­îc dïng nã sÏ mang ý nghÜa sau:
If you will /would.
 Th­êng ®­îc dïng trong c¸c yªu cÇu lÞch sù ( Would lÞch sù h¬n)
Eg. If you would wait a moment, I will see if Mr John is here.
(NÕu c« vui lßng chê mét chót, t«i sÏ xem liÖu «ng John cã ë ®©y kh«ng.)
I would be very grateful if you will/ would make an arrangement for me.
If you could + verb in simple form.
NÕu «ng vui lßng - Ng­ßi nãi cho r»ng ng­êi kia sÏ ®ång ý nh­ mét lÏ tÊt nhiªn
Eg.	If you could fill in this form.	If you could open your books.
If + S + will / would. NÕu ... chÞu - DiÔn ®¹t ý tù nguyÖn
Eg. If he will (would) listen to me, I can help him. NÕu nã chÞu nghe theo lêi t«i th× t«i cã thÓ gióp nã.
If + S + will. DiÔn t¶ sù ngoan cè.
Eg. If you will learn English this way, a failure for TOFEL test is sure awaiting you.
 	 NÕu cËu mµ cø häc tiÕng Anh theo c¸ch nµy th× tr­ît kú thi TOFEL ch¾c ch¾n ®ang chê ®ãn cËu.
If + S +should.
DiÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng dï rÊt cã thÓ ®­îc song kh¶ n¨ng rÊt Ýt vµ khi nãi ng­êi nãi kh«ng tin lµ sù viÖc l¹i cã thÓ x¶y ra.
Eg.	If you shouldn’t know how to use this TV set, please call me up this number.
NÕu anh kh«ng biÕt c¸ch sö dông chiÕc tivi nµy, h·y gäi ®iÖn cho t«i sè m¸y nµy. (Nãi vËy nh­ng ng­êi nãi kh«ng cho r»ng lµ anh ta l¹i kh«ng biÕt sö dông chiÕc tivi ®ã.)
If you should have any difficulties while doing these exercises, please feel free to ask me.
(Ng­êi thÇy kh«ng cho r»ng cËu häc sinh l¹i kh«ng lµm ®­îc nh÷ng bµi tËp ®ã - v× chóng rÊt dÔ hoÆc cËu häc trß rÊt th«ng minh)
- Trong mét sè tr­êng hîp ng­êi ta bá if ®i vµ ®¶o should lªn ®Çu c©u mµ ng÷ nghÜa kh«ng thay ®æi.
Eg.	Should you have any difficulties while doing these exercises, please feel free to ask me.
Should it be cloudy and gray, the groundhog will suP.Posedly wander around for food - a sign that spring is near. NÕu trêi cã nhiÒu m©y vµ bÇu trêi x¸m xÞt th× ng­êi ta cho lµ con sãc ®Êt sÏ ®i lang thang kiÕm ¨n - ®ã lµ dÊu hiÖu cña mïa Xu©n ®ang tíi gÇn. Thùc ra, khi sö dông cÊu tróc nµy th× t¸c gi¶ cho r»ng khi con sãc ®Êt chui ra th× rÊt hiÕm khi trêi l¹i cã nhiÒu m©y vµ bÇu trêi l¹i x¸m l¹i - cã thÓ lµ do kÕt qu¶ thèng kª.
5. Special conditions:
even if + nagative verb (cho dï ...)
You must go tomorrow even if you aren’t ready.
Whether or not + positive verb (dï cã ... hay kh«ng)
He likes watching TV whether or not the show is god.
unless + positive verb = if ... not (trõ phi, nÕu ... kh«ng)
If you don’t start at once, you will be late. = You will be late unless you start at once.
But for that + unreal condition (nÕu kh«ng th× ....)
Her father pays her fees, but for that she wouldn’t be here ( but she is here)
 	 present ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thùc ë hiÖn t¹i
My car broke down, but for that I could have come in time.
 qu¸ khø ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thùc ë qu¸ khø
otherwise + conditional sentence kÎo, nÕu kh«ng th× ....
- §iÒu kiÖn cã thÓ thùc hiÖn ®­îc. We must be back before midnight, otherwise I will be locked out.
- §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thùc hiÖn ®­îc.
 Her father pays her fees, otherwise she couldn’t be here.
 	 present ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thùc ë hiÖn t¹i
 I used a computer, otherwise it would have taken longer.
 qu¸ khø ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thùc ë qu¸ khø
NhËn xÐt. Trong tiÕng Anh hµng ngµy, ng­êi ta dïng or... else ®Ó thay thÕ cho otherwise.
Provided/ providing (that) (víi ®iÒu kiÖn lµ, miÔn lµ )
You can camp here provided (that) you leave no mess.
Suppose/ supposing ? = what ... if ...? (gi¶ sö v× sao, nÕu v× sao)
SuP.Pose the plane is late? = what will happen if the plane is late?
- Tõ nèi nµy cßn ®­îc sö dông ®Ó ®em ra lêi gîi ý. SuP.Pose you ask him = why don’t you ask him?
What if I’m- tao thÕ th× sao nµo ®­a ra sù th¸ch thøc
 Hy väng lµ...
If only + simple present / will V = hope that s will v
If only he comes in time (hy väng anh Êy ®Õn ®óng giê) If only he will head your advice.
 Gi¸ mµ - tr¸i víi thùc tÕ.
If only + simple past/ past perfect = wish that 
If only he didn’t smoke. (but he doesn’t) If only she had come in time. (but she didn’t)
if only + would verb - ­íc sao, mong sao
- 	dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét ­íc muèn ë hiÖn t¹i If only he would drive more slowly (but he drive so fast)
hoÆc mét ­íc muèn v« väng ë t­¬ng lai. If only it would stop raining.
Mong sao trêi ®õng m­a n÷a - nh­ng thùc tÕ th× trêi ®ang m­a rÊt to.
6. Mixed conditions: Câu điều kiện hỗn hợp đạc biệt.
a. For a true action: Với khả năng thực tế, câu mệnh lệnh.
Eg. 	If she comes, call me. (= Maybe she is coming or she has promised to come) 
If the weather stays fine, we can arrive on time. (= The weather is now fine and there’s no sign of the bad changes)
b. For a suggestion: Với lời đề nghị, khuyên răn.

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