Giáo án tiếng Anh 12 - Unit 1 đến unit 10

WARM-UP

1) What do you think the term environment refers to?

2) What environmental issues are you concerned about?

3) Have you ever heard of the word ecology?

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ue¶s house, which is in the centre of town, is over 100 years old. (which is in 
the centre of town does not tell us which house; we already know that it is Sue¶s 
house) 
Non-defining clauses are more common in a formal style, especially in writing. 
When we write these clauses, we put commas (,) at the beginning of the clause 
(and often at the end of the clause). 
Last weekend I met Sue, who told me she was going on holiday soon. 
Frank Morris, who is one of my best friends, has decided to go and live in 
France. 
Note that in a non-defining clause we cannot use that or Ø. 
She gave me the key, which I put in my pocket. 
My uncle John, who lives in Manchester, is coming to visit me next week. 
EXERCISE 
Rewrite the sentences making the second sentence into a non-defining 
relative clause and putting it into the correct place. 
1) When I was in town, I met your sister. She was shopping for some clothes. 
2) Their house needs a lot of work doing to it. It is near the beach. 
3) Sandra’s just got a new job with Capital Insurers. It’s a much better company 
than the last one she worked for. 
4) The new manager seems to be a very capable woman. I met her last week. 
5) This case is full of books. I carried it all the way from the station. 
6) The Games International Company has just gone bankrupt. We have done 
business with them for many years. 
38 ENGLISH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
7) The hospital has handed out redundancy notices to all its staff. It is due to 
close down next year. 
8) The prisoners are requesting more time out of their cells. Their families are 
campaigning on their behalf. 
9) The new government is now facing major problems. It came to power with a 
lot of public support. 
10) Her latest novel is really good. I read it on holiday. 
11) The Home Affairs Minister is suspected of being involved in a financial 
scandal. The opposition have accused the minister of lying. 
12) The Education Department is changing its policy on single sex schools. Mrs. 
Parkinson is in charge of the department. 
13) The LiIley and Swan department store has made reductions on most of its 
goods. The store has a sale on at the moment. 
14) The principal actor could hardly speak last night due to a sore throat. He 
normally has a wonderful voice. 
15) The sales manager is planning a new advertising campaign. I support her 
ideas. 
Figure 
12 
UNIT 6 : TYPES OF POLLUTION 39 
UNIT 6 
TYPES OF POLLUTION 
WARM-UP 
1) List some types of pollution you know. 
2) Which types of pollution do you think are very serious in Vietnam? 
READING 
Water pollution is the introduction into fresh or ocean waters of chemical, 
physical, or biological material that degrades the quality of the water and 
affects the organisms living in it. This process ranges from simple addition of 
dissolved or suspended solids to discharge of the most insidious and persistent 
toxic pollutants (such as pesticides, heavy metals, and nondegradable, 
bioaccumulative, chemical compounds). 
Figure 13 : Types of pollution 
40 ENGLISH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
Thermal pollution is the discharge of waste heat via energy dissipation into 
cooling water and subsequently into nearby waterways. The major sources of 
thermal pollution are fossil-fuel and nuclear electric-power generating facilities 
and, to a lesser degree, cooling operations associated with industrial 
manufacturing, such as steel foundries, other primary-metal manufacturers, and 
chemical and petrochemical producers. 
Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's land surface through misuse of 
the soil by poor agricultural practices, mineral exploitation, industrial waste 
dumping, and indiscriminate disposal of urban wastes. 
Radiation pollution is any form of ionizing or nonionizing radiation that results 
from human activities. The most well-known radiation results from the 
detonation of nuclear devices and the controlled release of energy by nuclear- 
power generating plants. Other sources of radiation include spent-fuel 
reprocessing plants, by-products of mining operations, and experimental 
research laboratories. 
Noise pollution has a relatively recent origin. It is a composite of sounds 
generated by human activities ranging from blasting stereo systems to the roar 
of supersonic transport jets. Noise may be generally associated with industrial 
society, where heavy machinery, motor vehicles, and aircraft have become 
everyday items. 
Air pollution is the accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that, in 
sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or produce other measured 
effects on living matter and other materials. Among the major sources of 
pollution are power and heat generation, the burning of solid wastes, industrial 
processes, and, especially, transportation. The six major types of pollutants are 
carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, particulates, sulfur dioxide, 
and photochemical oxidants. 
UNIT 6 : TYPES OF POLLUTION 41 
READING COMPREHENSION 
Read the text and complete the table. 
Type of pollution Definition Sources of pollution 
VOCABULARY 
Choose the best word from the box for each of the following sentences and 
put it in the correct form. 
degrade pesticide disposal dump by-product 
dissolve generate exploit supersonic blast 
1) Pollution is …………….. the environment. 
2) These vegetables are grown without the use of ……………... 
42 ENGLISH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
3) The safe …………….. of nuclear waste is a major international problem. 
4) Forty sealed containers of nuclear waste have ……………..in the sea off 
Harwich. 
5) Ammonia, coal tar and coke are all ……………..obtained in the manufacture 
of coal gas. 
6) I …………….. my horn to make him move on. 
7) Concorde, the …………….. plane, flies at twice the speed of sound. 
8) The firm has been successful in …………….. new technologies to the full. 
9) The wind turbines are used to …………….. electricity. 
10) Salt …………….. in water. 
WORD STUDY 
A. WORD FORMS: ADJECTIVES 
Some common adjective endings are -al, -able, -ful, -less, -t, and -ous. Look at 
the words in the list below. Notice the endings on the adjectives. See how the 
adjectives are related to the other words. 
adjective verb noun 
1) experimental experiment experiment 
2) natural — nature 
3) preventable prevent prevention 
4) suitable suit — 
5) believable believe belief 
6) successful succeed success 
7) violent — violence 
8) different differ difference 
9) religious — religion 
10) useful, useless use use 
EXERCISE 
Choose the best word to complete each sentence. Use a word from line 1 in 
sentence 1, and so on. 
1) Scientists have planted jojoba and euphorbia crops on 
……………………farms in several countries. 
2) The ancient Egyptians used plants as ……………………medicine to treat 
diseases. 
UNIT 6 : TYPES OF POLLUTION 43 
3) Many common diseases of the 19th century are ……………………now. 
People no longer get sick from these diseases. 
4) There are many wild plants in the woods, but not all of them are 
……………………for humans to eat. 
5) I don’t ……………………your story about meeting people from Mars. I 
don’t think it’s true. 
6) The first experiment with the new crop did not …………………… . The 
plants died, and the scientists had to begin again. 
7) Some people think that television is too …………………… . There are too 
many programs that show people fighting and killing each other. 
8) It can be very cold in parts of the United States during the winter, but it is 
almost never cold in Australia. The …………………… in weather is very 
great in these two areas of the world. 
9) Helen goes to church every day and often reads the Bible. She is very 
……………………. 
10) The jojoba is a very ……………………plant. It can be used to soothe burns, 
to make hair shiny, and to make a drink similar to coffee. 
B. WORD FORMS: ADJECTIVES 
Adjectives have only one form. They can never be plural. 
Look at these examples: 
We have a two-week vacation from school in March. 
It is a four-hour flight from Chicago to Los Angeles. 
EXERCISE 
Change the words in bold print to hyphenated adjectives and rewrite the 
sentences. The first one is done for you. 
1) A flight from Los Angeles to London is ten hours. 
It is a ten-hour flight from Los Angeles to London. 
2) High school students in California have a summer vacation for three months. 
………………………………………………………………………………… 
3) It is a long drive from Toronto to Winnipeg. It takes four days. 
………………………………………………………………………………… 
4) It is a short trip from New York to Boston. It is only 200 kilometers. 
………………………………………………………………………………… 
44 ENGLISH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
C. WORD FORMS 
Look at the list of verbs, nouns, and adjectives below. Notice how they are 
related to each other. 
Verb Noun Adjective 
1) — scene, scenery scenic 
2) — science, scientist scientific 
3) persuade persuasion persuasive 
4) protect protection protective 
5) continue continuation continuous 
6) — history, historian historical 
7) enjoy enjoyment enjoyable 
8) suggest suggestion suggestive 
9) solve solution — 
10) organize organization organized 
EXERCISE 
Choose the correct word for each sentence. Use a word from line 1 in 
sentence 1, and so on. 
1) Kei brought a book of photographs of Japan to class last week. Japan has very 
beautiful ………………………… . We saw pictures of mountains, lakes, 
and lovely cherry trees. 
2) Chemistry and biology are two kinds of ………………………… . 
3) Bill could persuade you to do almost anything. He is a very 
………………………… person. He talked me into going camping in 
Yellowstone National Park. 
4) Some of the huge redwood trees in California are under the 
………………………… of the National Park Service. The service keeps the 
trees safe and healthy. 
5) Workers can become very tired of the ………………………… noise in a 
factory. The noise never stops. 
6) Most countries have a ………………………… museum 

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