Giáo án Chuyên đề tiếng Anh 13

2. Các từ có điểm giống nhau dễ nhầm lẫn.

Accept (v): chấp nhận. Eg. Professor Perez will accept the chairmanship of the humanities department.

Except (pre): ngoại trừ (1 vật hay 1 người). Eg. Everyone is going to the convention except Bob.

Access (n): sẵn có, cách truy cập vào.

Eg. The teacher had no access to the studentsfiles, which were locked in the principals office.

Excess (adj): 1- dồi dào, phong phú, dư thừa. Eg. We paid a surcharge on our excess baggage.

 (n) 2- Lượng bổ xung, phụ. Eg. The demand for funds was in excess of the actual need.

Advice (n) : lời khuyên, tư vấn. Eg. If you heed the teachers advice, you will do well in your studies.

Advise (v) : khuyên, hoặc tư vấn. Eg. The Congress advised the president against signing the treaty at that time

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to the publishers again, inquiring about his manuscript.
Against (pre) : 	1- chống lại, phản đối ai đó hoặc cái gì đó.
Eg. The athletic director was against our dancing in the new gym.
	2- kề bên, bên cạnh. Eg. The boy standing against the piano is my cousin Bill.
Already (adv): sẵn sàng.	Eg. Jan’s plane had already landed before we got to the airport.
All ready (noun + adj): Đã chẩn bị sẵn sàng để làm gì. 	Eg. We are all ready to go boating.
Among (pre): Chỉ ra mối quan hệ trong (hoặc sự lựa chọn từ) 3 hay nhiều người (nhiểu vật) - trong số.
Eg. It was difficult to select a winner from among so many contestants.
Between (pre): chỉ ra mối quan hệ (sự lựa chọn) giữa 2 thực thể.
Eg. Between writing her book and teaching, Mary Ellen had litte time for anything else.
Lưu ý : cấu trúc between ... and cũng có thể được dùng để chỉ vị trí chính xác của 1 quốc gia nằm giữa các quốc gia khác.	Eg. Việtnam lies between China, Laos and Cambodia.
Beside (pre): bên cạnh đó.	Eg. There is a small table beside the bed.
Besides (pre/ adv): ngoài ra, cũng, hơn nữa. Eg. I have five history books here besides the four that I left at home.
Aside (adv): đặt sang 1 bên.	Eg. Harry sets money aside every payday for his daughter’s education.
Compare (v) + with: so với (để chỉ ra sự giống nhau, sự tương đồng).
Eg. Sue compared her new school with the last one she had attended.
Contrast (v) + with: chỉ ra sự tương phản (khác nhau).
Eg. In her composition, Marta chose to contrast life in a big city with that of a small town.
Consecutive (adj): Liên tục ( không có tính ngắt quãng).
Eg. Today is the tenth consecutive day of unbearable heat wave.
Successive (adj): liên tục. Eg. The United States won gold medals in two successive Olympic Games.
Considerable (adj): đáng kể.
Eg. Even thought Marge had considerable experience in the field, she was not hired for the job.
Considerate (adj): lịch sự, ân cần, chu đáo, hay quan tâm tới người khác.
Eg. It was very considerate of Harry to send his hostess a bouquet of flowers.
Credible (adj): có thể tin được.	Eg. His explanation of the rescue at sea seemed credible.
Creditable (adj): vẻ vang, đáng ca ngợi, đáng khen.
Eg. The fireman’s daring rescue of those trapped in the burning was a creditable deed.
Việc người lính cứu hoả dám xông vào cứu những người bị nhốt trong đám cháy là việc làm đáng khen ngợi.
Credulous (adj): cả tin, nhẹ da. Eg. Rita is so credulous that she will accept any excuse you offer.
Detract (v): làm giảm (giá trị, uy tín). Eg. Molly’s nervousness detracted from her singing.
Distract (v): làm lãng quên, làm mất tập trung.
Eg. Please don’t distract your father while he is balancing the chequebook.
Device (n): một phát minh hay 1 kế hoạch, thiết bị, dụng cụ, máy móc.
Eg. This is a clever device for cleaning fish without getting pinched by the scales.
Devise (v): nghĩ ra, sáng chế ra.
Eg. The general devised a plan for attacking the enemy camp at night while the soldiers were celebrating.
Elicit (v): rút ra, moi ra, thu hồi lại, rút lại
Eg. The prosecutor’s barrage of questions finally elicited the truth from the witness.
Illicit (adj): bất hợp pháp.
Eg. The politician’s illicit dealings with organized crime caused him to lose his government position.
Emigrant (n): người di cư (động từ là Emigrate from : di cư từ).
Eg. After world war II, many emigrants left Europe to go to the United States.
Immigrant (n): người nhập cư (động từ là Immigrate into ).
Eg. The United States is a country composed of immigrants.
Example (n): thí dụ, dẫn chứng. Eg. Picasso’s Guermica is an excellent example of expressionism in art.
Sample (n): mẫu. Eg. Mike loves to go to supermarket because the dairy lady always gives her a sample of cheese.
Formerly (adv): trước đây. Eg. He formerly worked as a professor, but now he is a physicist.
Formally (adj) 1- tề chỉnh (ăn mặc). Eg. At the resort we were required to dress formally for dinner every night.
 ở nơi đông người người ta yêu cầu chúng tôi ăn mặc chỉnh tề vào tất cả các bữa ăn tối.
	2- chính thức. 	Eg. She has formally requested a name change.
Hard (adj): 	1- khó.	Eg. The test was so hard that nobody passed.
	2- cứng. 	Eg. The stadium’s seats were hard, so we rented a cushion.
3- (adv) chăm chỉ, rất nỗ lực.	Eg. They worked hard on the project.
Hardly (adv): hầu như không. 
Eg. He had so much work to do after the vacation that he hardly knew where to begin.
Helpless (adj): Vô vọng, tuyệt vọng.
Eg. I could not speak their language, I felt helpless trying to understand the tourists’ plight.
Useless (adj): vô dụng.	Eg. An umbrella is useless in a hurricane. ô sẽ trở nên vô dụng trong trận bão.
House (n) vs. HOME (n): nhiều khi được sử dụng lẫn lộn, nhưng có sự khác biệt về ngữ nghĩa. 
1- House ám chỉ tới toà nhà hoặc công trình kiến trúc. 
Eg. The Chapmans are building a new house in Buckingham Estates. 
2- Home ám chỉ tới bầu không khí trong ngôi nhà. Home là nơi trái tim ở.
Imaginary (adj): Tưởng tượng, không có thật.
Eg. Since Ralph has no brother or sisters, he has created an imaginary playmate.
Imaginative (adj): phong phú trí tưởng tượng, giàu trí tưởng tượng.
Eg. Star Wars was created by an highly imaginatve writer.
Immortal (adj): bất tử.
Eg. The immortal works of Shakespeare are still being read and enjoyed three centuries after their writing.
Immoral (adj): trái với luân thường đạo lý, đồi bại.
Eg. Their immoral behavior in front of the students cost the teachers their jobs.
Implicit (adj): ngầm, ẩn tàng, tiềm tàng, tuyệt đối, hoàn toàn.
Eg. Our supervisor has implicit faith in our ability to finish the project on time.
Người giám sát dự án có niềm tin tuyệt đối vào khả năng hoàn tất dự án đúng thời hạn của chúng tôi.
Explicit (adj): rõ ràng, chính xác. Eg. They gave explicit instructions for carrying out the research project.
Industrial (adj): [thuộc] công nghiệp. Eg. Paul had an industrial accident and wa in the hospital for three months.
Industrious (adj): cần cù, siêng năng. 
Eg. Mark was such an industrious student that he received a four-year scholarship to the university.
Inflict (v): kết án, bắt phải chịu. Eg. Because the prisoners had created a riot and had assaulted several guards, the
 	warden inflicted several punishments on all the participants.
Afflict (v): làm sầu não, làm đau khổ. Eg. During the Middle Ages, millions of people were afflicted by the plague.
(vào thời trung cổ, hàng triệu người đã bị ngã bệnh vì nạn dịch.)
Inspiration (n): cảm hứng (sáng tạo, học tập, khám phá). Eg. Thomas A. Edison, inventor of the phonograph, said 
that an idea was ninety-nine percent perspiration and one percent inspiration. (Thomas A. Edison, nhà 
phát minh ra chiếc kèn, nói rằng 1 ý tưởng là 99% mồ hôi công sức và chỉ 1% cảm hứng sáng tạo).
Aspiration (n): 1- khát vọng, nguyện vọng. 	 Eg. Gail’s lifelong aspiration has been that of becoming a doctor. 
 2- sự hít thở. 	 Eg. To pronounce certain words, proper aspiration is necessary.
Intelligent (adj): thông minh.
Eg. Dan was so intelligent that he received good grades without ever having to study.
Intelligible (adj): dễ dàng, dễ hiểu.
Eg. The science teacher’s explanations were so intelligible that students had no problems doing their assignments.
Intellectual (n):	1- trí thức. Eg. Because Fabian is an intellectual, he finds it difficult to associate with his 
 	classmates who are less intelligent.
 2- (adj): khôn ngoan, tài trí, uyên bác. Eg. John was involved in an intellectual conversation with his old professor.
Intense (adj): mạnh, dữ dội, mãnh liệt. Eg. Last winter’s intense cold almost depleted the natural gas supply.
Intensive (adj): mạnh, sâu, tập trung. Eg. Before going to Mexico, Phil took an intensive course in Spanish.
Late (adj, adv): 	1-không đúng giờ, muộn. 	Eg. Professor Carmichael hates to see his students arrive late. 
2- (adj) quá cố. 	Eg. Her late husband was the author of that book.
Lately (adv): gần đây. 	Eg. I haven’t seen Burt lately. He must be extremely busy with his research.
Learn (v): học. 	Eg. The new cashier had to learn how to operate the computerised cash register.
Teach (v): dạy. 	Eg. The instructor is teaching us how to program computers.
Lend (v) và Loan (v): cho vay - có thể dùng lẫn được. Eg. Jill loaned (lend) me her red dress to wear to the dance.
Borrow (v): vay. 	 Eg. I borrowed Jill’s red dress to wear to the dance.
Liquefy (v): tan ra, chảy ra. 	 Eg. The ice cream began to liquefy in the intense heat.
Liquidate (v): trừ khử, thanh toán, thanh lý.
Eg. The foreign agent tried to liquidate the traitor before he passed the information to his contacts.
Lonely (adj : cô đơn. 	Eg. After her husband’s death, Debbie was very lonely and withdrawn.
Sau cái chết của chồng, Debbie rất cô đơn và khó tính.
Alone (adj): một mình. 	Eg. After losing in the Olympic tryouts, Phil asked to be left alone.
NEAR (pre/adv): gần. 	Eg. My biology class meets near the Student Union.
NEARLY (adv): hầu hết, gần như, suýt nữa.	 Eg. We were nearly hit by the speeding car on the turnpike.
Chúng tôi suýt nữa thì bị một xe tốc độ cao húc vào trên xa lộ.
OBSERVATION (n): sự quan sát, sự theo dõi.
Eg. The ancient Egyptians’ observation of the heavently bodies helped them know when to plant and harvest.
OBSERVANCE (n): sự tuân theo, sự tuân thủ, nghi thức, nghi lễ.
Eg. There will be numerous parades and displays of the fireworks in observance of Independece Day.
PERSECUTE (v): ngược đãi, hành hạ.
Eg. Throughout history many people have been persecuted for their religious beliefs.
PROSECUTE (v): truy tố. 	Eg. Shoplifters will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.
PRECEDE (v): đứng trước. 	Eg. Weather Service warnings preceded the hurricane.
PROCEED (v): tiếp tục (một công việc bị bỏ dở).
Eg. After the fire drill, the teacher proceeded to explain the experiment to the physics class.
QUANTITY (n): số lượng (được dùng với danh từ không đếm được).
Eg. A large quantity 

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