Bài giảng chuyên đề 1 - Teaching techniques for effective reading

Why read?

most of us read because it gives us the pleasure of knowing, feeling, acting and learning, or of escaping from our own limited worlds. We are able to go beyond ourselves, to be other people, to be in other places, and to do other things. Through the projection of ourselves into the lives of characters in books, we learn about the general truth of being a human being. It is this knowledge that is the most important reward books have to offer; through it come compassion, sensitivity, insight, taste, and judgment

Experts agree that reading is the golden key to the world of enlightenment and enjoyment. In our daily lives, 80 percent of the things we do involves reading. We read recipes in cookbooks, instructions on how to do things, labels of canned food and other products , menus in restaurant , street signs and advertisements. To know more about places or things, we read periodicals and nonfiction books. For our relaxation, we read fiction, comic books , and light, humorous stories. When we study, we do a lot of reading.

 

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re cycles of sampling, predicting, testing and confirming
the reader selects enough cues – graphic, syntactic, and semantic – to trigger his/her own appropriate language experiences. 
Reading involves an interaction between language and thought.
How does Flavell define metacognition 
metacognition is an awareness of and an ability to capitalize on one’s own knowledge and thought process.
Metacognitive activities can be divided into different clusters
Metacognition means general knowledge
Answer key 
1, c 2 a 3c 	4 b 	5 a 
Building word power for effective reading 
Why word power? word power is closely related to academic success. Anderson and Freebody (1981) report a strong relationship between vocabulary and academic performance, IQ test results, and predicting reading comprehension across age groups and content areas.
Condon (1968) explains that a word is a label for an internal reality. When you create a label, you also create a set of new perceptions. For examples, before taking a course in astronomy, you might look at the night sky and see only a sea of stars. After a few weeks of the course, you begin to see novas and galaxies. The creation of labels and words is a tool we use to structure perceptions. New labels foster new concepts and perceptions. Indeed, when names are learned, we see what we had not seen before, for we know what to look for.
Klausmeir and aipple (1980) define concept knowledge in terms of word knowledge. A concept is the socially accepted meaning of one or more words. The number of words a student knows represents the concepts and information that he/she knows. Vocabulary knowledge implies a rich understanding of the word, it means knowing a word by definition and associating experiences with that word. 
How can you characterize a rich understanding of a word?
The answer lies in understanding how information is stored in long term memory, either episodic or semantic. Episodic memory is specific, it contains events that have occurred. For example, if you recall your last birthday, you probably replay that event in your mind as though it were a movie. On the other hand, semantic memory is more general. It contains decontextualized information extracted from episodic memory. For example you might store general information about birthdays in your semantic memory (eg, they occur once a year , they are pleasant because some relatives and friends remember you). Word knowledge is made up of specific events that gradually transform to general characteristics. Sometimes we associate specific events with abstract words that are fairly general in nature. We may also include pictures of the event along with associated memories of smells, sounds, tastes, sensations, and emotions. 
Underwood(1969) lists nine cues associated with information stored in long-term memory:
1.)
acoustic – recalling a word on the basis of its sound (eg, gobble, goggle 
affective – recalling information because of an associated emotion(eg, remembering the day your team lost in the championship game because that made you sad) 
context- recalling information because of the general context in which it appeared
frequency – recalling how often an event occurred (eg, remembering that your teacher said “ah” every time she paused) 
modality- recalling an event because it made a strong impression on you visually , auditory, tacitly( eg, remembering the joint Christmas presentation of the Bayanihan Dancers and the Madrigal Singers at the Cultural Center of the Philippines) 
spatial- recalling where objects are in relation to one another ( eg, remembering that you sat in front of a girl with short, curly hair in third grade)
temporal- recalling when something occurred (eg, remembering your first dance in school)
verbal – recalling information because of a word associated with it ( eg, remembering the events of a class excursion when you hear the words super Sunday ) 
visual – recalling a mental image associated with information ( eg, remembering the term fireworks because it elicits a strong image)
what are some guiding principles of vocabulary instructions?
Developing word power can be planned based on the following clear guidelines and principles (Marzano 1988) 
wide reading and language rich activities should be the primary vehicles for vocabulary learning
general language development must be encouraged as one of the most important word building strategies
direct vocabulary instruction should focus on words considered important to a given content area or to general background knowledge
instruction should include many ways of knowing a word and speed training to build automaticity in word recognition
instruction should provide for the development of a complex level of word knowledge
it should utilize various forms such as mental pictures , smells, tastes. Kinesthetic associations, semantic distinctions, and linguistic references.
instruction should emphasize a structure by which a new words not taught directly can be learned readily
instruction should be multifaceted, including associating new words with a variety of contexts, creating contexts of words, contrasting words to discover relationships, and using the words outside of class
instruction should be fruitful by grouping words in semantic categories and teaching them in relation to one another
since frequently used words have multiple meanings, instruction should include connotative, denotative, lexical, syntactical, and figurative meaning. 
a very economical and effective way of developing vocabulary is through the use of programmed instruction 
 word formation 
Many teacher believe that second language students can not read well because they have a small stock of vocabulary. Consequently, these teachers spend much time in unlocking new words. About 50 percent of the reading lesson is spent in vocabulary building.
Knowledge of word formation is useful in developing vocabulary. If a person wants to learn may words within a short time, he/ she must be acquainted with the way English words are formed. Most likely he/ she will enjoy reading about the origin of some words and will also be interested in knowing the changes that have happened to some English words. 
The following will discuss the different types of word formation, the meaning of each type, examples of various word forms, and some words under each type. In the discussion on fold or popular etymology, the origin of some words is given.
In almost language, new words are constantly being formed. Some words are popular during certain periods. For example, three of the common expressions used during the Second World War were blizkieg, D-Day, and Victory Joe. After the war these words went into disuse. Now they are the almost forgotten.
You will learn about the way words undergo changes by working on the items which follow. Get a ruler or a sheet of paper folded about 4 centimetres wide and 20 centimetres long. You will need this to cover the boxed portion on the right side of the pages you will work on.
cover the boxed portion. ( these are the answer you must not look at) 
answer the learning unit on the left by filling in the blank with your answer. 
after writing your answer, slide down the ruler or sheet of paper to reveal the correct answer in the box. 
if your answer is correct, you are ready for the next itm. If it is wrong, read the whole item with the correct answer before you move on to the next item. 
follow steps 1 to 4 until you finish the whole shet. 
The following explains the five processes of word formation: clipping, blending, compounding, acronymy, and folk etymology 
CLIPPING
Clipping is a very common process in word formation. To clip means to cut off the beginning or the end of the word. It may mean cutting from both ends, leaving a part to stand for the whole. 
When we cut off the beginning, the result is called a clipped word. Phone is then a clipped form of _____1
We may cut from the end of a word. This is shown in the word photograph. Cutting the end leaves the clipped word ________2
The word psycho is clipped form of ____3 which means the study of human behavior. 
Like wise, trigo is the clipped form of _______4, the branch of mathematics which deals with ratios between the right side and angle of a right triangle. 
Chemistry may be clipped as ________5 . 
The clipped form of laboratory is ________6.
Advertisement is a long word. It may be written in a very short form of two letters, ________7 
Another long word is gasoline. Clip it to form________8
The word prefabricated, which refers to a building, is popular clipped as_______9.
The word taxi is the clipped word of _______10, a public vehicle which looks like a car. 
One who corrects or edits is called an editor. Oftentimes the name is shortened to _______11
______-12 is a kind of contagious disease characterized by fever, colds and muscle pain. It is commonly called flu. 
Answer key
telephone
photo
psychology
trigonometry
chem.
lab
ad
gas
prefab
 taxicab
ed
influenza
BLENDING 
Some words are formed by fusing or putting two words together. Usually the first part of one word is blended or fused with the last part of another. The blended word then gets its meaning from the two words put together. Some blended words do not last. Like other words, they are forgotten.
One whose mother comes form Europe and whose father is an Asian may be called a_____1
Every employee is entitled to medical care when he/she gets sick and hospitalized. In the Philippines this benefit is commonly referred to as _____2.
Another popular blended word is cosmonaut. The first part comes from the word ______-3, which means “world” or “universe”. The second part comes from ________4, the name given to persons who travel and explore outer space. 
On certain days, pilots, and drivers complain about the difficulty of looking for certain places due to heavy smoke and fog, commonly 

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